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Biochemical Evidence of Evolution






     Organisms get comprised of the same fundamental organic compounds that form the root of life. Biochemistry tends to examine these organic compounds, along with the chemical processes occurring in all organisms. Basically, each of these compounds serves a specific purpose in permitting an organism of functioning, and organisms having similar biochemical constitution suggest that they have advanced from a more primitive general ancestor (Goldberg, 2010).

Apparently, the chemical base for all life is in DNA, as well as RNA; although we live within a biologically distinct environment, every organism has similar chemically bonded nucleotides. The series of these nucleotides inside the DNA, together with the number of chromosomes inside a cell tends to decree what the organism will appear to be, the manner in which it will reproduce, the environment it will live in, as well as how it will protract itself. The assessment of the nucleic structure tends to reveal a parallel between diverse species.

The evolutionary relationship amongst numerous organisms is traceable to a common ancestor. Apparently, a common ancestor happens to be a being from which two or even more related species might have evolved (Goldberg, 2010). As time passes, organisms change while diverging from their common ancestor thereby forming new species. In order to demonstrate the evidence for evolution in the theory of the common ancestor, we consider DNA, RNA, the genetic code, together with protein synthesis, which happen to be alike in all organisms.

There are two significant ways a cell is capable of harvesting energy from food i.e. through fermentation, as well as cellular respiration since oxygen is applied as final electron acceptor. Both cellular respiration, along with fermentation begin with the same initial step i.e. the process of glycolysis that refers to the glucose (6 carbons) breakdown or gashing of glucose to two 3-carbon molecules known as pyruvic acid. This same process is used in harvesting energy from sugars like fructose. Glycolysis is most likely the oldest known manner of producing ATP. There is proof that the glycolysis process predates the being of oxygen (O2) within the Earth's atmosphere, as well as organelles inside cells (Behe, 2001). The Earth's basic atmosphere whereby living organisms primarily evolved lacked O2 with those initial organisms getting the energy they require through fermentation.

Ultimately, organisms evolved, which were capable of harvesting energy from sunlight through photosynthesis, although that process produces a toxic waste product i.e. oxygen. With those organisms becoming more numerous, as well as released toxic oxygen to the atmosphere, the level of oxygen gradually increased while some other organisms evolved, which were not killed in the oxygen; rather, they were also capable of using it to their gain by being capable of doing cellular respiration. Consequently, it is necessary to remember that glycolysis happens to be a process that entails a number of steps or chemical reactions, with each needing specific enzymes of making it happen.

The similarities within the organisms' biochemical composition suggest common ancestry. The presence of comparable blood proteins, enzymes or even biochemical compounds within distinctive species tends to be evidence of them evolving over time. For instance, cytochrome c, happens to be a biochemical compound fundamental for aerial respiration, is also a polypeptide that can be found inside all living organisms with polypeptides getting formed by means of long chains of amino acids. Although it is possible for the amount of amino acids to differ depending on the species, cytochrome c is still available inside their biological composition.

Apparently, it is possible to find the enzymes fulfilling chemical messages inside the body in an abnormal diverse group of organisms, for instance, trypsin can be found inside protozoa and animals, whereas amylase can be found inside sponges and humans (Behe, 2001). Consequently, the metabolism of vastly distinctive organisms is also founded on comparable biochemical compounds. The foundation of our biochemical composition abscond remnants of itself from the undemanding life forms to the most composite organisms.

References:

Behe, M. J. (2001). Darwin's Black Box: The Biochemical Challenge to Evolution. Pennsylvania: Simon and Schuster.

Goldberg, D. T. (2010). Barron's AP Biology. New York: Barron's Educational Series.






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Posted on 2012-11-22, By: *

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