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Human Anatomy and Physiology


Anatomy is the research of internal and external structure. Structure is the research of how living creatures perform the various functions of life. Human anatomy, which, with structure and chemistry is a supporting basic medical science, is mainly the study of the morphology of the adult human body. It is the study of relationship between human system components and features. Body components and features are closely related, why? Because our human body is unique, the components are engineered to adapt and support our human body features and systems.
Main Idea:


1. Chemical level: simplest stage of architectural hierarchy.Ex: atoms--molecules--organelles.

2. Cellular level: primary architectural and efficient units of lifestyle.

3. Cells level: groups of similar cells with a common function. Ex: epithelium, ligament, muscle, nervous cells.

4. Human body organ level: A human body organ is a structure consisting of at least two cells types that functions a specific operate for one's human body.

5. Human body organ system level: organs that work with one another to accomplish a primary operate and purpose.

6. Patient level: human body organ techniques working together to accomplish functions required for lifestyle.

Levels of organization of the human body:

Chemical - created up of atoms and molecules

Cell - are basic architectural and efficient units of an patient. There are many different kinds of cells in one's human body including: sensors cells, blood vessels cells, muscles and fat cells.

Cells - groups of cells & the surrounding environment that perform together to produce a particular function. There are only four kinds of cells in the body: epithelial tissue, ligament, muscular cells and anxious tissue.

Body organ organs are components that are created of two or more different kinds of cells, they have particular functions & a defined shape. The heart is an example of an organ; it is created of muscular, connective, & anxious tissue. The cells perform in concert to move blood vessels through one's human body.

Tissue in the human body:

Epithelial: Is created of cells organized in a ongoing sheet with one or more levels, has apical & basal areas. An underground room membrane part is the connection between the basal area of the mobile & the actual ligament.
There are two kinds of epithelial tissues: (1) Covering & coating epithelia and (2) Glandular Epithelium.

Simple Epithelium - one mobile layer
Stratified epithelium - two or more mobile layers

Connective: contains many different mobile kinds including: fibroblasts, macrophages, mast cells, and adipocytes. Connective Cells Matrix is created of two materials: ground substance - necessary protein and polysaccharides, fiber reticular, bovine collagen and flexible.

Category of Connective Tissue:

Loose Connective - materials & many mobile kinds in gelatinous matrix, discovered in skin, & surrounding veins, nerve fibres, and organs.

Heavy Connective - Many of similar bovine collagen fibers& fibroblasts, discovered in tendons& structures.

Muscle: Muscle is separated into 3 groups, skeletal, heart and sleek.

Skeletal Muscular non-reflex, striated, striations verticle with respect to the muscles and it is mainly discovered attached to bone fragments.

Cardiac Muscular unconscious, striated, extended and has intercalated discs
Smooth Muscular unconscious, nonstriated, spindle formed and is discovered in veins & the GI tract.

Nervous: Includes only two mobile kinds in the neurological program (CNS) & side-line neurological program (PNS):

Nerves - Cells that turn stimulating elements into electrical desires to the brain, and Neuroglia helpful cells are created up of mobile human body, axon and dendrites. There are 3 kinds of neurons:

Engine Neuron carry desires from CNS to muscles and glands,

Interneuron - understand feedback from neurological neurons and end reactions to motor neurons

Sensory Neuron receive information from environment and transfer to CNS.

Development: All cells of one's human body develop from the three primary bacteria mobile levels that kind the embryo

Mesoderm produces into epithelial tissue, ligament and muscular cells.

Ectoderm - produces into anxious tissue and epithelial tissue.

Endoderm produces into epithelial tissue.

Cell Junctions: There are 5 types of cell or tisssue junctions in the human body. They are

Tight Junctions - Form a closure between cells; determine apical and basal sides of an epithelial cell

Gap Junctions - An open 4 way stop between two cells, which allows ions, & little elements to pass easily between the cells.

Adherens Junctions - Weblink actin cytoskeletal elements in two cells.


The purpose that individuals will want to understand about the requirements of individual system and structure is it will educate them about what is going on in their individual body. Being injured and having to go see a doctor can be a terrifying here we are at individuals. However, if the person has a working knowledge on some of the parts of one's human body, it will be easy for them to see just how important this is. That is when they should know about the value of learning about one's human body. Without knowing on the value of components of human anatomy and physiology it will be nearly impossible for some individuals to understand what exactly is going on with their human body at some point.

Article Source:

open access journals. open access. anatomy & physiology.

Posted on 2013-05-22, By: *

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