The 8-Discipline Report (8-D) is perhaps considered the original problem solving report although the military would probably argue that statement. The 8 Discipline report is comprehensive and addresses all the common ground between the varying problem solving techniques and then some. Below is each discipline listed along with some detail as to how it is used in the problem solving process.
* Discipline #1, (D1): Identify the problem solving team. Here we identify all the personnel that will be used for this problem solving event.
* Discipline #2, (D2): Identify the problem that needs to be solved. This defines for the most part, what went wrong usually from the customer perspective, which can be an external customer or an internal customer as well.
* Discipline #3, (D3): Contain the problem. In many cases, particularly in production related environments, it is imperative to stop the flow of defects throughout the value stream. Normally you go to the furthest upstream point in the process and work your way backwards.
* Discipline #4, (D4): Now the fun begins! This is where we identify, verify and validate the true root cause of the problem. The idea is to not just identify what needs to be fixed, but rather, what is causing the issue deep inside the process itself. There are many ways to conclusively find the root cause such as the 5-why diagram, design of experiment, cause and effects to mention a few, (which we will be addressing throughout this website).
* Discipline #5, (D5): Now that we understand what the problem cause is, we can begin to identify the most effective corrections to solve the problem. It is worth noting that we are not implementing the corrections in this step. Although root causes to problems can be drilled down to a single cause, it is possible to have varying levels and degrees of corrections. Many of which have to be weighed in terms of feasibility, cost, effectiveness and difficulty.
* Discipline #6, (D6): We have now weighed our options to address the root cause that we validated and verified. Now it's time to implement and validate the corrective action(s) we have chosen.
* Discipline #7, (D7): Fixing the cause of the problem with effective permanent corrective actions is great. However, making changes to the system(s) that will prevent re-occurrence of the issue is also an important part of the problem solving process.
* Discipline #8, (D8): Congratulate the team. The theory behind this is that a job well done that goes unrecognized by management does not support good morale. The 8-Discipline Report as defined by Ford Motor. I had to include this one because you can always leave it to a major OEM to put their own spin on the proven process in order to claim that their process improves upon the original.
* Now Ford decided that the 8 Disciplines above were not enough. We need a Step 0! This way we don't have to change the name of the report itself, (8D).
* So what is step 0? It is the planning step before we address the problem. Here we plan for the problem solving event itself. The intent is to identify the prerequisites necessary to solve this particular problem.
Copyright (c) 2013 Doug Lukas
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