ABC Article Directory banner displaying blue butterfly logo. Click to go directly to the main Homepage

Sven Hylten-Cavallius's Articles

  • Filtration in Fish and Aquarium Care
    Filtration systems are essential in aquarium and fish care. Filtration systems strain out chemicals, and pollutions, which the filtration process passes through, or puts the chemicals and contaminants in a filter. The filters are then cleaned or replaced by human hands.
  • Do You Build Or Buy A Saltwater Aquarium?
    Haven't decided whether to build or buy a saltwater aquarium? For most people buying a ready-made aquarium is by far the easier option. But if you're handy with tools and construction you might be thinking of building your own tank. This chapter will provide you with do-it-yourself instructions on how to build a 55 gallon glass aquarium to house your marine life.
  • Aquarium Care Guide- New Tanks
    When starting a new aquarium it is important to understand the nitrogen cycle. Many new aquarium owners jump into the hobby of fish keeping too quickly. Before purchasing fish, the aquarium must be cycled. This could take anywhere from twenty four hours to four weeks. In an established aquarium there are certain bacteria that help the breakdown of ammonia to nitrates, but they are not present in a new tank
  • The Best Baby Gift Ever Is Just A Click Away!
    The best baby gift ever is just a click away!
  • Affordable Non-Drug Solution To ADHD
    Alternate to expensive EEG Biofeedback (neurofeedback)
  • Misdiagnosing Narcissism - Asperger's Disorder
    Asperger's Disorder is often misdiagnosed as Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD), though evident as early as age 3 (while pathological narcissism cannot be safely diagnosed prior to early adolescence).
  • Baby Shower FAQs
    Baby Shower FAQs
  • Marine Aquarium Care- Invertebrates Only
    The care required for an invertebrate only tank is very similar to that of any other saltwater tank; however, the invertebrates are far less hardy than fish. It is recommended that you become skilled with a fish only tank before attempting an Invertebrate aquarium. Most Invertebrates require a specialized diet. Check with the supplier before purchasing and be sure that you are willing to make the commitment to
  • Adult ADHD: Are You An Idea Machine?
    It's true: people with Adult ADHD come up with 10 more great ideas in a single day than people without Adult ADHD do in a week. Problem is, we get distracted by these new ideas and don't ever finish the old ones! Find out the trick to using your new ideas without getting distracted from your main go
  • Aquarium and Fish Care Needs
    After you have purchased your aquarium, filters, heaters, gravel, floss, buffers, food, fish, and so on, you will need to learn how to clean and care for the fish. In fact, you should have researched the market before purchasing fish or aquariums to have an overall view of how to care for fish and maintain fish tanks.
  • Clutter Busters: Simple Strategies For Cleaning Up Your Act
    With of the biggest challenges couples and families face is CLUTTER, both dealing with it and avoiding it. But, according to experts, there's really no need to stress over "mess", especially if you learn how to clean up your act, BEFORE it gets out of control
  • Top 10 Reasons to Have an Ezine
    1. Establish yourself as a trusted expert. People search online for information and will look to you, as a subject matter expert, to provide it to them. Every week (or whatever schedule works) provides an opportunity to build on this, while reinforcing your brand.
  • A Special Education Success Story With Add and ADHD
    In our rapidly moving culture, students diagnosed with ADD or ADHD (Attention Deficit Disorder or Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder) are an ever-increasing challenge for teachers. This is a true story of success in a six-week project where middle school children diagnosed with ADD and ADHD enjoyed the same success, if not more than, the other students.
  • What's Not ADHD?
    Let's look at five behavioral issues which are not ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder). While these difficulties may be found along with ADHD, it doesn't mean that they are symptoms of ADHD.
  • Homeschooling The ADD/ADHD Child
    As homeschool parents, there are many options for teaching our children. I have found the variety out there to actually be overwhelming, but few resources actually meet my needs. My son is gifted, but has ADHD. As a clinician and a professor, I hated seeing him struggle in school. Each day he would tell me he had "Carnitors" (T-Rex's for the rest of us) in his tummy.
  • Are You In Need Of Saltwater Aquarium Decorations? - Brightening Up Your Marine Tank!
    Now for the fun part - saltwater aquarium decorations are one aspect of marine fish keeping where you can really allow your creativity to reign free. A variety of decorations are available - from backgrounds, ceramic, resin or plastic ornaments, real or false corals and shells and even plants the sky is (well almost) the limit when it comes to creating a marine world for your fish and other invertebrates.
  • Top 15 Ways to Build Your Subscriber List
    Email marketing can be profitable for any business, no matter what kind of product or service you offer. It is significantly cheaper than other advertising methods and, if done right, helps build loyalty and trust with customers. As a result, you generate more sales and more profits!
  • 5 Ways to Successful Selling Online
    Are you selling online? You are maybe looking for some solutions how to succeed in your business. There are several ways how to get more clients and earn more money. In this article I will introduce you some of them.
  • Tropical Freshwater Aquarium Fish Care
    Some freshwater fish are easier to keep than other species. Angelfish, Killifish, Clown Loach, Hatchetfish, etc, are few choice fish that you want to consider. However, you will need a bit of experience to handle few of the fish listed.
  • Beating Male Depression
    Despite what you may have heard, depression affects men as profoundly as it does women.Yes, we've all heard the jokes about the male mid-life crisis and the questions of self-identity that go with it.
  • Use A Deck Of Cards For An Aerobic Workout
    Hints and tips gathered in over 30 years pumping iron.
  • Catfish Aquarium and Fish Care
    How to manage Catfish Catfish include the body of Siluridae, which is actually off springs of the Catfish. The European catfish, including the naked skinned fish is kin to the Asiatic group.
  • How To Take Best Care Of Your Fish
    Hemigrammus include the Erythrozonus, Rhodostomus, Flammeus, and so on. The Flammeus comes from the Hyphessobrycon group. The Hemigrammus Erythrozonus species are commonly known as the Glowlight Tetra.
  • Alas! In E-commerce Taxland
    In trying to comply with tax laws for your e-business, you may find yourself falling down the rabbit-hole, going through the looking glass, and attending a Mad Tea-Party.Common sense, logic, and fairness never did apply fully to the field of taxation but this is especially true of e-commerce transactions.
  • 4 Steps to Lower Your Shopping Cart Abandonment Rate
    The shoppers are on your site, they are interested in the product, but the design of your shopping cart is causing you to lose many if not most of your customers. Sound familiar? It should.
  • Aerobic Exercise for Weight Loss Can Be Fun
    Here are some of the many aerobic exercises you can do and because of the variety you have to choose from, it can not only take the boredom out of doing it, it can make doing it downright fun as well.
  • Fitness - Aerobic Training
    Fitness in general includes both aerobic and anaerobic aspects. According to the priorities of the sportsman, one or the other of the two aspects will be emphasized, but the second one will not be neglected. The purpose of doing fitness exercises is, ideally, to create a complete athlete, able to face various physical and psychological demands.
  • Aerobics Benefits and History
    The word 'aerobic' means "with oxygen". Researchers consistently recommend that regular physical activity with healthy eating habits is the most efficient way to keep yourself fit and control your body weight. Aerobic activity helps you to control or reduce your weight by using excess calories that otherwise would be stored as fat.
  • Great Aerobic Exercises Tips and Tricks For You To Run With
    What we all need are some aerobic that I mean decent ones which make you really sweat and your breathing faster. You need to get the heart pumping and muscles working.
  • Callichthyidae Fish Care and Aquariums
    Coming from Trinidad and South America are the Mail and Armored Catfish. These catfish are well respected even by larger fish.
  • A Marketing Conundrum
    Gambling and celebrity worship were traditionally the purview of the sharkskin suit and gold chain set, but with the advent of the Internet, anyone can enter the game.
  • Why Omega 3 Should Be an Essential Element in Your Diet
    The human body, just like any other body of a plant or animal in nature, is an incredible type of biological machine that is designed to do a lot more than we give it credit for.
  • Awesome Birthday Gifts for Anyone
    There are plenty of ways to surprise anyone with an awesome birthday gift and there are an unlimited number of ways you can show your love, affection, or friendship with fun gifts that are perfect for anyone! Chances are that you have had the experience on more than one occasion the difficulty of finding the perfect birthday gift for that special someone.
  • Martial Arts Uniforms: Getting the Right Fit
    Whether you're just beginning martial arts training or you've been a practitioner for years, you may have encountered challenges in finding uniforms that have the right fit.
  • Why Keywords Are Vital To An Seo Campaign?
    SEO, or Search Engine Optimization, is the optimization of a web page in order that it ranks higher in the SERPs (Search Engine Result Pages) for specific keywords or keyword phrases. The pages that rank higher typically gain the greater amount of search engine traffic compared to pages ranked lower for the same keyword.
  • Aquarium and Fish Care Assistance
    Fish care is extensive, since it depends on the type of fish you have. If you have damsels, which are saltwater fish then you should have a large reef tank, or marine tank.
  • Making Martial Arts As A Good Well Rounded Workout Regiment
    As I was reading about Martial Arts and all that it involves, I became very enthralled. I dared to find out what all the excitement was about. The phenomenon of martial arts to be used as a workout regiment for many athletes or even perspective physical fitness fans is growing rapidly. In a nutshell, this is all that I discovered.
  • Why Choose SEO Services?
    Summary: SEO is becoming more and more important for success over the internet that is why all business owners must take this method into consideration.
  • An Internet Marketing Seed
    This article outlines what it takes to create an Internet Marketing product that will turn into an Online empire.
  • Teen Dating Violence: What Every Child and Parent Must Know
    If you have teenage children who are getting ready to start dating you should read this shocking article and help your child learn some techniques to have safe dates and know what to do in case things go wrong. Learn some Warning Signs; Set Standards; and Develop a Safety Plan. Trust but Verify! Perhaps our children-with our help-represent the best opportunity to break what appears to be a viscous cycle of domestic violence.
  • Methods Of Qigong In Kung Fu Training
    Qigong is a general name for the systems of hardening and improvement of body and mind, treatment and health enhancement created in China. They primarily based on the ability to control your own consciousness, mentality and through them all the physiological processes of the organism. Practicing Qigong you can achieve stunning results some of which even the powerful modern science cannot conceive and explain.
  • $1 Million in Google AdSense Earnings
    They are calling him the million dollar man. Jason Calacanis recently revealed in his blog that he is on track to earn a million dollars from AdSense over the year ahead.
  • The Stars Shine In Los Angeles Schools
    Who wouldn't love to live in sunny L.A.? The beach, the movie stars, the extremely crowded schools, poor school maintenance, and incompetent administration…Actually, a significant number of the district's schools do not possess such conditions, despite the reputation of Los Angeles Schools.There really are many good things about Los Angeles Schools.
  • Training With Martial Arts Weapons - Karate Kung Fu Weaponry
    Discussion of training with martial arts weapons as part of an overall karate education.
  • The Hidden Costs Of Choosing The Wrong Style Of Martial Arts Karate
    A lot of people nowadays are getting into the martial arts and choosing a school without even knowing which style of martial arts the school teaches. Some schools are not totally clear on what their style is as many are practicing and teaching a hybrid mix of multiple arts. Is this a problem? Should you know which style you practice?
  • How to Choose a Martial Art
    Once you've decided that you want to start training a martial art, you'll need to decide which one is best for you. Of course, your choice might be dictated by the schools available in your area, but if you're lucky you'll have the choice of at least a few different types.
  • False Sense Of Security
    This article will teach you how to pick a realistic self defense program.
  • Top 7 Money Making Ideas To Make Easy Money Online
    If you are looking for ways to make easy money online, here are the top 7 money making ideas you may consider.
    1. Create Website or Make Blog
    By sharing your knowledge, expertise, hobbies, experience and interests, you can build a successful web site or blog with little amount of investment, as low as having an internet connection only.
  • Mixed Martial Arts Clothing: Wear And Beware
    Clothing and martial arts have become fused into a culture, a lifestyle, and a visual statement of who you are and what you stand for.
    I've often stated just how important comfort and mental clarity is for doing martial arts. What you wear and how you feel about it goes a long way to defining your state of mind while practicing the art form.
  • Martial Arts Overview
    Anytime an individual decides to learn how to protect themselves, learn self defense, or become a better person, one thing comes to mind - martial arts. Martial arts are very common these days, being practiced all over the world.
  • Choosing The Best Martial Arts Style
    For anyone who wants to learn a martial art, there is a lot to know in regards to the many different styles. Of course there is the question of finding the best martial art, which is a question a lot of people ask With so many martial arts styles to choose from, it can be very complicated to pick one to learn.
  • Who Are Business Angels?
    Business Angels are people who like to invest in struggling businesses which they think have a good chance of making it in the business with some financial backing as well as businesses that are just starting up. These businesses will need help financially to start-up with the purchase of stock and equipment
  • Placenta of Attraction
    Placenta for radiant skin? Truth or Myth? Let us look behind the mystery of this seemingly gruesome "delicacy"......
  • Mixed Martial Arts-Learn The Terms
    With the rules and sanctioning of certain mma events there has been an explosion of new followers of mma (mixed martial arts) The purpose of this article is to help familiarize the new fans of this sport with some of the terms that are used.
  • Bruce Lee, the Greatest Martial Arts Action Hero
    A tribute to the great Bruce Lee and his impact on martial arts.
  • Four Hot Signs Of Attraction
    In today's society, beauty, physical attraction, and sexuality are all commonly misunderstood as some transcendent inevitable fact; falsely interlocking the three makes it seem doubly true that in order to initiate attraction between a man and a woman, both sexes should be beautiful to be sexual.
  • The Whole Truth About Acne Scar Prevention
    Acne scar prevention is important to anyone who gets blemishes because scars are a permanent reminder of your struggle with bad skin. A scar is characterized by a discolored, slightly raised, or slightly indented mark that remains visible for an extended period of time.
  • About Judo Uniforms
    Judo uniforms are generally constructed out of 100% cotton, bleached white. Cotton is the best choice for breathability. Care should be taken when laundering, as most judo uniforms are not pre-shrunken and will shrink up to a full size from excess heat. Therefore, washing in cool water and air drying is highly recommended to avoid shrinkage.
  • Law Of Attraction: Your Subconscious Mind, The Matchmaker
    The best way to seek a soul mate, or a life partner, is to use the law of attraction. The best way to seek your ideal mate is not through your conscious mind, a friend, a professional matchmaker or a computer, but your own subconscious mind. Your subconscious is already aware of your character traits, and the manifestation will take into account who best fits your character, because nobody knows you best than your own subconscious.
  • Law of Attraction - 5 Reasons Why Money is So Hard to Attract
    Most everyone will agree that manifesting money takes something special. You may have manifest some of the things that you want but what about more money?
  • Ways To Make Money Online Without Spending A Cent
    Did you know that it is possible to make money online without investing a dime? Weblogs, affiliate marketing and surveys are among the three easiest ways to earn money through the Internet.
    If you look around the Internet for ways and means to earn money online, you will observe how most online money-making opportunities will require some money to be invested for you.
  • Law Of Attraction: How To Work The Power Of Visualization
    The power of visualization in the law of attraction, or what is famously known now as The Secret, is not a new experiment. It is not something that is untried. For centuries, sages have been studying and utilizing the power of visualization to get what they wanted. It is a proven fact that whatever we visualize, we will most certainly get. We know it as the law of attraction and it works on magnetic energy.
  • How A Simple Home Remedy For Acne Got Rid Of My Acne
    As a sufferer of acne, I was finally glad to get my life back after using a simple home remedy for acne that worked and got rid of my acne.
    I always hated life, I would awake in the morning and just couldn't face the mirror in my room, the sight of my own face would turn me off even more, I would just sit there feeling depressed.
  • How Mental Attitude and Digestion Affect Acne
    Acne is an expression of toxins in the body that are not being released through normal channels of elimination, so they come out through the skin. Find out how suppressed pain and poor digestion leads to acne and skin disorders.
  • Flexibility And Strength In Martial Arts
    Flexibility is the range of movement that you have in your joints. Some say that this definition should only apply if there is no exterior help to move the joint, but this is not correct. If your joints have a greater degree of movement when aided by an external force, then that degree of movement defines the flexibility.
  • How Your Diet And Acne Condition Are Related
    What you are is what you eat! Whether this statement holds good in the case of acne has been a topic which has been under rigorous research. Some people believe that certain foods cause acne while others think vice versa. But, it is very much possible that acne may be the result of food allergies in some cases.
  • Effective Acne Treatment Options
    Acne is the most prevalent skin disorder that usually afflicts first the adolescent population. With 70% of the adolescents affected with this skin disease, it is considered one of the most menacing disease especially during this transitional period of an adolescent's life since, though it may not be that fatal, it could cause some serious emotional trouble to a person ridiculed because of his or her not so clear complexion.
  • How Not To Make Money Online (Or Anywhere Else)
    Here are a few tips on how _not_ to make money, and underneath each one, the smart thing to do instead.
  • Law of Attraction - These 7 Things Are Holding You Back
    Have may have heard this common saying "I take one step forward but seem to fall back several steps soon after." In the pursuit attracting the things you want you must learn what hold you back in the first place.
  • Internet Pitfalls: Dangers Of Online Dating
    The Internet is just another way for men and women to meet. On the Internet, you have to be prepared for the added risk of meeting someone who will do hurt to you. This does not mean that you should not take the risk. Of course you can--just keep your eyes as open as your heart.
  • The Secrets To Ultimate Flexibility In Martial Arts
    Listen to your body, stretch and condition the way that your body tells you to, yeah, yeah, I get it. But what happens if you DON'T SPEAK your body's language? You want to be flexible but you don't have a clue how to get there. If you want to own the secrets to ultimate flexibility you need to understand how your body works and how it responds to certain exercises and workouts.
  • What SEO Marketers Should Avoid Doing
    Perfecting the art of Search engine optimization (SEO) is a truly tricky process. An SEO does the job improving the volume and quality of traffic to a web site from search engines via the organic or algorithmic search results.
  • Feeling Hopeless
    Letter from a reader who was feeling 'hopeless' and the response that contained a useful tool for getting clarity, focus and raising your vibration--the T-tool.
  • The Whole Truth About Whiteheads
    A whitehead is a build-up of oils and dead skin that plugs up your pores. It is embedded under the skin so it appears as a raised white bump.
  • How To Make Your Self Defense Training More Effective
    There is a right way & a wrong way to train in self defense so you handle violence effectively. This article gives you some tips so you don't freeze up in fear forgetting everything you learned when it matters most.
  • The Facts About Back Acne
    Acne is a common skin disorder that affects millions worldwide. Here are some tips to help minimize and prevent body acne.
  • The Social Impact of Acne
    This article states the social effect of people who have acnes.
  • How To Choose A Martial Arts School
    What to look for when choosing a martial arts school or club to join.
  • Do You Have Rosacea? How To Diagnose This Chronic Skin Condition
    If you suffer from a red complexion, flushing or blushing, a red nose and cheeks and dry, flaky skin with pimples, you may suffer from the chronic skin condition rosacea. This article explains the symptoms, causes and treatments of this chronic skin condition.
  • Law Of Attraction: The Power Of Positive Words
    In the universe, there are two great forces at work. We know them as good and evil or positive and negative. They are two powerful forces in their own right. In similar fashion, there are positive words and negative words, each causing opposite reactions when used by humans.
  • Martial Arts
    The martial arts are widely perceived in North America as a form of sport. Parents enroll children in karate classes to instill a sense of discipline. Adults train in martial arts to learn self-defense techniques. Many in the western world strive to obtain a black belt, thinking that this is the pinnacle of their training and education.
  • Getting Your Blog Indexed And More Exposure
    A blog is defined as a website that contains information, comments, thoughts and links by a writer. A blog can be a very personal site for writers looking to express their innermost personal thoughts or can be very general. Blog indexing means that blogs are listing on cross Internet searches and search engine sites. There are special sites that lists blogs that makes them easy to find for readers
  • Irritable Bowel Syndrome - Does the Law of Attraction Apply?
    Irritable Bowel Syndrome is not just a common condition but it is shrouded in negative facts. There in no real cause, no abnormality of the gut, no cure and no one effective treatment. According to the Law of Attraction, negative thoughts, results in negative effects. Mind treatment involving changing negative thoughts about Irritable Bowel Syndrome into positive once are becoming increasingly popular.
  • How To Blog Your Way To Success?
    Blog is a short of "weB LOG" or a method of storing any kind of information online. Such organized informational posting and archiving was named "Blog".By the form Blog represents an updated web-site of current and archived posts. A dead-simple concept turned out to be extremely powerful in terms of satisfaction of Internet community needs.
  • The Teaching Of Abraham: Secrets Of The Law Of Attraction
    The law of attraction is an ancient law that has recently been brought to light through Esther Hicks. Esther Hicks channels spirits that collectively use the name - "Abraham."
  • Rediscover The Power Of Visualization In The Law Of Attraction
    The law of attraction is a sensible occurrence of like attracting like. The law of attraction is like an ethereal magnet, it is an energy that circulates and returns to itself repeatedly. The energy within the law of attraction vibrates to the energy that is sent forth by our thoughts and actions.
  • Enhance Your Web Site Or Blog With A Smooth Flash Slide Show
    Turn your images into a smooth Flash slide show and publish it on your Web site in a matter of minutes. Enhance your slide show with background music and cool transitional effects for a unique appearance.
  • Mixed Martial Arts 101
    What is mma? Mma stands for mixed martial arts. Mixed martial arts is the blending of two or more fighting systems. The most common styles combined are striking and ground techniques.
  • Application of Energy Systems of Body in Aikido
    Aikido is all about giving and collecting energy. Aikido trains people on how to manage any vocal or corporeal conflict in a more pleasant-sounding way.
  • Getting Blog Links
    A lot of time is spent by bloggers trying to get other blogs to link to them. A lot of traffic can be gained by doing this with blogs that are both related to your topic and blogs that have a lot of readers.
    This can sometimes be very difficult for new bloggers because they do not yet have enough readers or page rank to interest the bigger blogs.
  • Business Blogs an Evolution in Cyberspace
    The invention of the printing press didn't start the advertising game. It just made it quicker and easier to find and inform business clients. Discover how Blogs evolved from virtual diary's to one page digital businesses
  • Understanding The Different Types Of Acne
    Before you can treat your acne, it may be to your benefit to understand that there are different types of acne. You should have a better understanding of your acne after reading this article.
  • Why Content is Still King - Effective SEO Tactics
    With all this talk about the Trustbox, Sandbox and Trustrank many times we get overwhelmed. One begins to wonder just how they go about building all these links from high quality authority websites. In this article I look at one such tactic. One that may surprise you at how effective it is yet one that is sure to drive large volumes of quality links to the site in question………
  • Dairy Products And Acne, What You Should Know
    Like me, millions of people have discovered Proactiv Solution and changed their lives for the better
  • Jujitsu: History, Philosophy And Methods
    Jujitsu is a 2500 year old unarmed combat discipline that has its roots in ancient Japan. The exact date on the creation of this martial art form is hard to trace but techniques resembling that of Jujitsu had already been incorporated into the training methods of the Samurai, from the 8th to the 6th centuries.
  • 10 Powerful Self Defense Tips For Women
    In the USA, every two minutes a woman is being raped. A 1993 survey revealed that 50% of Canadian women have experienced an incident of sexual assault or physical violence. In Australia, 19% of women aged 18 to 24 experienced an act of violence in the last year. Here is a quick list of 10 items that can make every woman safer.
  • What You Need About Page Optimization And SEO
    On page optimization refers to search engine optimization techniques used directly in the construction of web pages.However, it is important to remember that on page optimization is about more than simply search engine optimization, it should be about optimizing the page for human readers.When you do this, you generally make the search engines happy as well.
  • How To Eliminate Wordpress Blog Comment Spam
    One of the most serious problems with any blogging system, including WordPress, is that the comments area is wide open to that scourge of the Internet, spammers. In this case, it's comment spam.
    Comment spam is created by people seeking to boost their Google rankings by having lots of links pointing to their own websites. This causes a wide variety of problems:
  • What's The Opposite Of Doubt?
    The Law of Attraction teaches us that whatever you focus on, you will attract MORE of it into your life--whether it's wanted or unwanted.
  • How Martial Arts Sparring Shoes Saved My Marriage
    If you do any kind of martial arts sparring, you know that protective gear is of the utmost importance. Any man who has the stones to go into a sparring match without a cup on, won't have them for very long. There's protective gear like the heavily padded "foot gloves" that I wear when I'm teaching, so I don't accidentally do a spin kick and take someone's head off when they miss a block.

1 2 3 4

/EDF Publishing. All rights reserved. Script Services by: Sustainable Website Design
Use of our free service is protected by our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service Contact Us

User published content is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-No Derivative Works 3.0 Unported License
Increase your website traffic with

Valid CSS!


Powered by ABC Article Directory